Global developmental delay (GDD) is a term used when a child shows delays across several areas of development. Children with GDD take longer to reach developmental milestones, such as walking and talking. In this blog, we explain the symptoms of global development delay and the support and treatment that can improve an individual’s quality of life. LD Network is a trusted partner for healthcare providers, delivering person-centred support for individuals with global development delay, helping people live full and meaningful lives.
What is Global Developmental Delay (GDD)?
Global developmental delay is a term used to describe significant delays in cognitive and physical development in children. During their early years, babies and children achieve crucial developmental milestones, encompassing abilities like walking, social interaction, talking, as well as movement skills, and emotional interaction.
While children typically reach these milestones at varying times, there is a general pattern of development based on age. However, a child with global development delay may experience delays in two or more milestones significantly later than expected. This delay is referred to as “global” because it affects multiple areas of development rather than being limited to a specific domain, such as talking or movement skills.
GDD can vary in severity, and early identification and appropriate support are essential to help children reach their developmental potential.
Global Developmental Delay in Children
It’s important to note that development delays are usually identified when children are younger than five. Early detection and intervention are crucial for children with GDD. Signs of global development delay in children can vary, but common signs in babies and children include:
- 3 to 4 months: a baby doesn’t respond to loud noises, doesn’t babble, and doesn’t try to imitate sounds
- 7 months: a baby doesn’t respond to sounds
- By 1 year: a child doesn’t say any words, for example, ‘mama’
- By 2 years: a child cannot say at least 15 words, doesn’t use two-word phrases without repetition and can only imitate speech
A comprehensive evaluation by healthcare professionals is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment may involve a combination of therapies tailored to address the specific developmental delays and challenges of the child.
Global Developmental Delay in Adults
Global developmental delay primarily manifests in babies and children. However, it can often extend into adulthood, becoming a permanent disability or symptom of developmental disabilities. Genetic counselling can help individuals understand their disability and find methods to overcome challenges. When GDD continues into adulthood, it may require ongoing personalised support to address the individual’s specific needs.
Symptoms of Global Developmental delay (GDD)
There are different signs and symptoms of global development delay, which may vary depending on the specific characteristics of the individual.
Common signs of global development delay include:
- Noticeable delays in motor skills while learning to crawl and walk
- Difficulty with fine motor skills
- Language and communication delays
- Difficulty understanding communication
- Difficulty with problem-solving skills
- Difficulty with social skills
- Challenges with memory
- Need help with everyday tasks
- Challenges with education
It’s vital to note that some signs are noticeable earlier in development, while others may become obvious when a child is school-age. Also, all children develop at different rates, so some signs of GDD may be natural for a child and won’t be a cause for concern. However, seeking an assessment for a child can ensure they receive the support they need.
What Are Developmental Milestones?
Developmental milestones are a set of skills, goals, or tasks that most children can do at a specific age range. These milestones occur across different areas of development. Examples of developmental milestones include:
- Motor skills: sitting up, rolling, picking up small objects
- Speech and language: babbling, imitating speech and identifying sounds
- Cognitive skills: learning new things, processing information, and remembering things
- Social and emotional skills: interacting with others, understanding and responding to the needs and feelings of others
The developmental milestones are a guide for doctors to help identify children who may be at risk for developmental delay. This is crucial for providing proper and customised support in overcoming the challenges of GDD.
What Causes Global Developmental Delay?
Global developmental delay is a challenge with diverse and often elusive causes that vary from person to person. While the exact cause may remain unknown, several common factors, such as genetic factors, have been linked to GDD. Additionally, GDD can be triggered by factors like premature birth, infections, metabolic disorders, and complications during pregnancy or childbirth. Identifying the cause is essential in tailoring appropriate interventions and support for individuals with GDD.
Furthermore, global development delay may manifest as a symptom of other conditions and challenges, highlighting the complexity of its nature. Among these conditions and challenges are:
- Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Cerebral palsy Landau Kleffner syndrome
- Foetal alcohol spectrum disorder
- Muscular dystrophies
- Learning disabilities
- Down syndrome
- Fragile X syndrome
Healthcare professionals must conduct thorough assessments to distinguish between GDD as a primary challenge and GDD as a secondary symptom, as this differentiation influences the course of treatment and management.
In cases where GDD is associated with a learning disability, individuals may require specialised support and assistance from various professionals. Occupational therapists can help develop essential motor and adaptive skills, while psychiatrists can provide emotional and behavioural support. Additionally, speech and language therapists play crucial roles in enhancing communication abilities, further promoting individuals’ overall development and integration into society. With a multidisciplinary approach, individuals with GDD can be better equipped to face challenges and achieve their potential.
Global Developmental Delay Diagnosis
It’s crucial to remember that the development of every child is unique, and it can happen at a different pace. Parents must also know the potential signs of GDD so they can consult for further assessment and testing.
Usually, GPs, paediatricians, or developmental psychologists assess a child’s development. They ask questions or conduct a test to identify if a child meets the development milestones. A child should see a speech, language, or occupational therapist for further evaluation and support. There are also cases when genetic tests are done to see if there is a genetic cause for the delay.
An early diagnosis can ensure proper support and improve an individual’s quality of life, enhancing developmental progress and improving the overall quality of life, enabling people to maximise their potential and thrive.
The Link Between GDD and Intellectual Disability (ID)
Global developmental delay refers to a significant delay in two or more developmental domains.
In comparison, an intellectual disability (ID) involves challenges and difficulties with learning and understanding information. It can affect intellectual functioning (learning and reasoning) and adaptive functioning (communication and independent living). A person with developmental delays in multiple development domains is more likely to have an intellectual disability.
Medical professionals can identify whether a child has GDD, ID, or both, through assessments, tests and evaluations. With the right diagnosis, a person can get proactive help and support.
Global Developmental Delay Treatment
Individuals with global developmental delays can benefit from additional support to navigate the challenges they may encounter in their education and daily lives. One crucial aspect of this support involves a team of dedicated professionals who play essential roles in treating and developing individuals with GDD. For instance, speech and language therapists work diligently to enhance language comprehension and production skills.
Meanwhile, physical therapists focus on fostering gross motor skills, and vision therapists specialise in developing visual and sensory integration abilities. Additionally, occupational therapists are instrumental in supporting fine motor skills, sensory processing, and self-care capabilities. Collaboratively, these professionals offer a comprehensive approach to address the various needs of individuals with GDD.
The involvement of developmental paediatricians in the treatment process is vital. They possess the expertise to identify concerns and provide tailored treatment options for individuals with GDD, ensuring a personalised approach to their care. Educational support also plays a critical role in this context by offering specialised assistance to individuals, allowing them to access learning opportunities that cater to their unique requirements. Psychiatrists provide emotional, social, and behavioural support, ensuring that the mental well-being of individuals with GDD is nurtured in conjunction with their developmental progress.
How Does LD Network Support People With Global Developmental Delay (GDD)?
LD Network supports healthcare providers and is dedicated to providing compassionate, person-centred care for individuals with global developmental delay and complex care needs.
Our team of clinicians provide unparalleled care rooted in positive behaviour support (PBS) principles. At LD Network, we prioritise consistency of care, ensuring that the people we serve receive dedicated and tailored throughout their journey.
Our office is based in Exeter.
To find out more about our proactive care, contact us today.